• NINO CHAREKISHVILI Professor, Georgian Institute of Public Affairs (GIPA) Gorgasali street #101, Tbilisi, Georgia


Pitteyariga should have been also an important geographic point for Hittites. Unfortunately there are so few materials about Pitteyariga. It is mentioned in contracts and religious texts. Pitteyariga appears in Treaty „Mida of Paḫḫuwa“ (Arnuwanda I) and „Treaty of Šuppiluliuma I with Šattiwaza of Mitanni“, „Treaty of Šattiwaza of Mitanni with Šuppiluliuma I (Šuppiluliuma I); It is mentioned in religious texts connected to the names of Šuppiluliuma I, Muršili II, Ḫattušili III, Šuppiluliuma II. And also in the text „Prayer of Arnuwanda I and Ašmunikkal to the Sun-goddess of Arinna“; in ritual text of „Fragments of the AN.DAḪ.ŠUMSAR festival“; in ritual text „Festival for Ištar of Šamuḫa“. In these texts Pitteyariga is mentioned only as ordinary geographic point.

Pitteyariga should have been navy  city while texts indicate on its port function. From the pray text of Hittite king Arnuwanda and queen Ašmunikkal we learn, that Kaškians conquered some settled points in the east and among them was Pitteyariga. Because of constant military actions between Hittites and Kaškians Hittites could have at least a little influence over Pitteyariga. Although written sources say nothing from this point of view. Unfortunately there are only few materials about Pitteyariga, but on the basis of existed sources we can approximately define location of Pitteyariga, from this standpoint attention shall be paid to Halys river, the Hittite Marasantia (today Kizilirmak) which flows above Sivas on open lowland, despite of the fact that it is not a wide river, those times it could be used by small boats. I think that Pitteyariga, and Arziya and Šamuḫa were supposedly located right on Halys river (in the north-east of Sivas lowland. More exactly, we shall place Pitteyariga in the upper point of Halisi river, then comparatively below we shall place Šamuḫa, and Arziya supposedly shall be placed between Šamuḫa and Pitteyariga, this is nowadays part of Kizilirmak river which is located between Sivas and Zara. So Pitteyariga, as well as Šamuḫa, should have been port city of „upper Land“ and it would be important for Hittites to obtain control over it.

Keywords: Assyriology, Hittite, Pitteyariga (Pittiyarik), Šamuḫa, Upper Land, Mittani, Arnuwanda, Šuppiluliuma, Muršilli, Ḫattušili.