ADVERBS OF TIME IN SHIDA KARTLIAN
The aim of this article is to study the adverbs of time in Shida Kartlian. The research is based on the latest material we have collected in the villages of Didi and Patara Liakhvi, Prone, Dzama, Kavtura, Tedzma and Ateni valleys. Dialectic texts written by Georgian linguists at different times are analyzed to represent linguistic processes chronologically distant in time and space.
The production, structure and function of adverbs of time in the Shida Kartlian speech are similar to the Georgian literary language, and different cases indicate the processes that are significant for the Kartlian dialect. Here we find the adverbs of time formed by primary or own production, with a case form (with a case mark or postposition), composing-composition and attachment of particles.
The adverbs of time with the Nominative case mark confirmed in the speech of the village of Tsitelubani in Gori Municipalityindicate to the cases of switching the speech codes of Kartlian and Adjarian.
The adverbs of time are preserved in an archaic form: Aknamdi // Aknandi, Iknamdi // Iknandi, Aknobamdi//Aknobamde, Aknobamdin//Aknobamdis. We find the peculiar production adverb"chamodagma"in the meaning of the time adverb “after”.Some adverbs of place (arsad, versad, agarsad, vegarsad/nowhere, sadme/anywhere...) are used to denote the adverbs of time (rodesme/ever, arasodes/never, agarasodes/never, verasodes/never, rodisme/ever).
For adverbs of time with –a and –i extending vowels are charecterised accentation. These vowels are often exchangedfreelyand represent the same amountin the adverbs of time ending with -t (tsinata-tsinati/ago, dilita-diliti/in the morning), in some cases their use must be explained by analogy and tendency of unification.
Some adverbs of time show the Genitive and Dativeformssimultaneously: gogoobisas/during girlhood, bavshvobisas/during childhood.
Some postpositions or adverbs in Shida Kartlian manage the Dative case instead of Genitive: Or saats ukan(¬ori saatis ukan)/two hours back; amastsin (= amistsin)/before that; dgestvina (¬dgistvina)/for the day.
The adverb of time in Dative often added adverbs ,,aket// aketi// aketia“: dilas aketi/since morning, sagamaos aketi/since evening, gushin aketi/since yesterday, We often found repetition of the adverbs of time in the sentence to express the nuances of the multiplicity of the verb-predicate.
For example:dges utkhra/said today, khvalutkhra/said the next day, zegutkhra/said the day after next day.
Although Shida Kartli is not ethnically monotonous, the linguistic changes caused by contact with other linguistic units are not confirmed. Linguistic events are documented by locally obtained material, usually accompanied by the name of the village where this or that linguistic event or expression is recorded, but this does not mean that area of its use is limited by only a verified village. The scientific paper is important for the study of Georgian dialectology, lexicology and the history of the Georgian language.